Vacuum furnace types
Vacuum furnace is a kind of vacuum furnace, which uses vacuum system (which is composed of vacuum pump, vacuum measuring device, vacuum valve and other components carefully assembled) to discharge some substances in the furnace chamber, so that the pressure in the furnace chamber is less than a standard atmospheric pressure, and the space in the furnace chamber realizes the vacuum state. This is the vacuum furnace.
Vacuum Furnace Advantages:
1. The oxidation and decarbonization of the workpiece surface during heating are completely eliminated, and the clean surface without deterioration layer can be obtained. This is of great importance to the improvement of the cutting performance of tools that only grind one side when grinding (such as twist drill grinding which directly exposes the decarburized layer on the groove surface to the edge).
2. It does not pollute the environment and does not need to dispose of the three wastes.
3. The accuracy of furnace temperature measurement and monitoring has been greatly improved. The indication value of the thermocouple and the furnace temperature are up to 1.5 C. However, the temperature difference in different parts of a large number of workpieces in the furnace is large. If the forced circulation of rarefied gas is adopted, the temperature difference can still be controlled within the range of (+5) C.
4. High degree of mechatronics. On the basis of improving the accuracy of temperature measurement and control, workpiece movement, air pressure regulation and power regulation can be programmed in advance, and quenching and tempering can be carried out step by step.
5. Energy consumption is significantly lower than that of salt bath furnace. Modern advanced vacuum furnace heating chamber uses high-quality insulation material to make insulation wall and barrier, which can highly concentrate the electric heating energy in the heating chamber, and the energy saving effect is remarkable.
Functions of vacuum furnaces:
1. Vacuum quenching: (tempering, annealing) is a processing method that achieves the expected performance by heating and cooling materials or parts in vacuum according to the process regulations.
2. Vacuum brazing: that is, in the vacuum state, a group of welding parts are heated to the melting point temperature of the filler metal above, but below the melting point temperature of the base metal. By means of the wetting and flowing of the filler metal to the base metal, a welding process is formed (the brazing temperature varies with the material).
3. Vacuum sintering: a method of sintering metal powder products into parts through adhesion and diffusion of adjacent metal powder grains by heating them in vacuum.
4. Vacuum magnetization: It is mainly suitable for magnetizing metal materials.
Two types of common vacuum furnaces:
Vacuum Resistance Furnace
1. External heat type vacuum furnace: (putting a vacuum tank in the ordinary well type furnace) mainly carries out annealing operation. It can be cooled by removing the vacuum pipeline and hanging out the furnace tank. Several vacuum tanks can be prepared for continuous operation.
2. Internal heat type vacuum furnace: (tank vacuum, between the tank and the furnace body is also vacuum) characteristics: can make the pressure inside and outside the tank consistent, reduce the thickness of the tank wall, internal heat type: resistance wire hanging inside the cylindrical furnace, types: carbon tube furnace, double chamber vacuum furnace, high-pressure gas quenching furnace.
Carbon Tube Furnace: The heat shield is inner clapper (0.3mm) with stainless steel layers. When the picks are heated, the surface becomes bright and the radiation energy is reflected back, so they can keep warm. And its gas content is small, so it is suitable for high vacuum.
Double-chamber vacuum furnace: This furnace is horizontal, divided into front and rear chambers, all in a vacuum state, with vacuum gates separated in the middle. There is a sealed furnace tank in the back chamber. After heating, the workpiece is heated in the back chamber. After that, the vacuum gates are opened and pulled into the front chamber. The gases run out of the carbon felt rush to the front chamber, then the vacuum gates are closed, and the furnace gates are opened and discharged. After feeding, first vacuum the front chamber, then open the vacuum gate to push the material into the rear chamber for heating. It can also be quenched with protective gas and oil tank.
High frequency quenching machine, which uses high pressure gas to quench the workpiece, is suitable for high speed steel.
Vacuum Induction Furnace
Semi-continuous vacuum induction furnace: crucible can pour several moulds continuously. It is not necessary to wait for the furnace to cool before removing the moulds from the relative periodic vacuum furnace. It is not necessary to repeatedly vacuum the heating chamber, so that the heating chamber can always be in vacuum. In addition, it is not necessary to wait for the furnace to cool before removing the moulds to improve efficiency.
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