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Vacuum Furnace Melting of Nickel and Its Alloys

In vacuum melting, the melting chamber is insulated from the outside air, especially after the melting chamber is vacuum-pumped, which not only blocks the way that the melt absorbs gases such as hydrogen and oxygen from the atmosphere, but also avoids the oxidation loss of some alloy elements. Moreover, because of the very low pressure in the furnace, the gas dissolved in the melt and the gaseous products produced in the melting process are easy to escape. It is the basic reason why high quality ingots with compact structure and less gas and other inclusions can be obtained by vacuum melting.

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According to the characteristics of gas deoxidized products easily escaping from the melt in vacuum melting process, charcoal is often used to deoxidize nickel and other alloys in vacuum melting because the vacuum deoxidized products are carbon monoxide. The bubbling or boiling phenomena on the surface of molten pool during melting process are caused by the deoxidized products carbon monoxide floating through the melt.


It should be pointed out that although some alloys containing evaporable elements are melted, measures such as filling inert gas into the melting chamber, covering the crucible, accelerating melting, and adopting reasonable charging and melting sequence are also adopted to overcome this shortcoming.


Most nickel and its alloys can be melted in low vacuum. The main processes of smelting are charging, melting and refining.


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