New materials technology and application
New materials refer to some newly developed or developing materials with superior properties, which have more excellent properties than traditional materials. In recent years, new materials have been paid more and more attention, and the state has attached importance to the development of new materials industry.
New material technology is in accordance with the will of the people, through a series of research processes such as physical research, material design, material processing, experimental evaluation, to create new materials to meet various needs of technology.
In accordance with the general plan of the State Council for speeding up the cultivation and development of strategic emerging industries, in order to implement the 12th Five-Year Plan for the development of new material industry, do a good job in the standardization of new material industry, establish and improve the standard system of new material industry, and promote the development of new material industry, the third work on the standardization of new material industry has been formulated. Annual action plan.
(1) increase the standard revision of key new material fields.
Special metal functional materials. We will actively promote the revision of key standards for high-purity metals and target materials, rare and precious metals, energy storage materials, new semiconductor materials, new generation of amorphous materials, fine alloys, etc. We will formulate and publish standards for rare earth permanent magnets, luminescence and other functional materials in a complete and systematic manner, and we will pay close attention to the development of material performance testing, component analysis and standard samples. And other basic and method standards. Complete the revision of 40 key new material standards, such as catalytic materials and target materials, put forward 80 key standard development plans, and carry out 5 key standard pre-research.
High end metal structural materials. The emphasis is laid on the development of high-temperature alloys and corrosion-resistant alloys, corrosion-resistant steels, special stainless steels, tool and die steels, bearing steels, gear steels, aluminum alloys for rail transit, special magnesium alloys and titanium alloys and other product standards, so as to further improve the supporting foundation and method standards for ultrasonic flaw detection, non-destructive testing and mechanical testing of metal materials. The revision of 30 key new material standards for nuclear power steels, corrosion resistant alloys and titanium alloys has been completed, and 40 key standard development plans have been put forward.
Advanced polymer materials. To formulate and promulgate a number of key product standards for special rubber such as butyl rubber, special auxiliaries, polyamide and other engineering plastics and products, battery separators, optical functional films, special separation membranes and components, environmentally friendly coatings and functional chemicals, and to complete the matching of determination methods, general technical conditions and application specifications. Standard revision. Complete the revision of 65 key new material standards in functional film, special rubber and other fields, and put forward 110 key standard development plans.
New inorganic nonmetallic materials. It focuses on the development of advanced ceramics, such as electro-optic ceramics, piezoelectric ceramics, silicon carbide ceramics, glass-ceramics, high-purity quartz glass and special raw materials, scintillation crystals, laser crystals and other product standards, accelerating the pace of material impurity detection, test methods and other ancillary standards, strengthening the development of ancillary standards. Fifty key new material standards for special glass and silicon nitride ceramics have been revised, 30 key standard development plans have been put forward, and 5 key standards have been pre-studied.
High performance composite materials. The standards for high performance fibers such as carbon fibers and basalt fibers should be formulated and perfected, and the related standards for fiber reinforced composites should be formulated and promulgated as soon as possible. Complete the work of making and revising 10 key new material standards such as high-end glass reinforced fiber, put forward 30 key standard development plans, and carry out 10 standard pre-research.
New frontier materials. In order to coordinate and optimize the key technical indicators, five key new material standards have been developed around nano-powder materials, graphene, superconducting materials, raw materials, biological materials and products, and intelligent materials. Ten key standard development plans have been put forward and 300 key standards have been developed. Pre-study of the project standards, closely follow the development trend of international new material technical standards, and do a good job of standard layout in advance.
Two) actively carry out the demonstration of key new material standards.
With high-strength steel bars, functional membrane materials, special glass, rare metal materials, rare earth functional materials, composite materials and other standards as the hub, facing the needs of new materials in the fields of electronic information, high-end equipment, etc., the revision and implementation mechanism of the standard system with the combination of upstream and downstream, complementary advantages and benign interaction is constructed to improve the new ones. Material standard applicability, give full play to the support and leading role of standards for industrial development.
Select key new material areas, in some areas where conditions permit, to carry out key new material standards application demonstration projects. Relying on the cooperation mechanism of ministries and provinces, we should actively promote the standardization of local new materials, and explore and carry out the work of identifying and meeting the standards of new material products on the basis of new material standards.
(three) accelerating the international standardization of new materials industry
Combining closely with the key points of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, the international standards of new material industry and the comparative analysis of foreign advanced standards should be carried out to find the gap between China's new material industry standards and international standards and foreign advanced standards. Around the new material industry and application needs, combined with China's actual situation, speed up the transformation of advanced and applicable international standards and foreign advanced standards, improve the technical level of China's new material industry standards.
Strengthen the development trend and dynamic analysis of international standardization of new material industry, carry out international standardization of new material industry technical reserve, build new material international standard proposal project database, and promote independent new material technical standards to international. Encourage powerful enterprises or units to participate in the work of international standardization of new material industry, establish an international standard communication platform, strive for the initiative of international standardization of new material industry, and enhance the international competitiveness of China's new material industry.
The output value of the world's material industry is growing at an annual rate of about 30%. New chemical materials, microelectronics, optoelectronics and new energy have become the most active, fastest-growing and most investor-favored fields of new materials. Material innovation has become one of the important driving forces to promote the progress of human civilization, and has also promoted the development and production of technology. Industry upgrading.
New chemical materials are one of the emerging industries in the low-carbon economic field supported by the state. According to the Decision on Accelerating the Cultivation and Development of Strategic Emerging Industries and the Development Plan of New Material Industry during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, the new chemical materials industry has become a leading industry in the national economy. By 2015, the gap between the overall technical level of domestic high-end chemical new materials and that of developed countries has narrowed to about 10 years, reaching the international advanced level at the beginning of this century. Adhesives, engineering plastics, high performance fibers, fluorosilicone materials, biodegradable materials, functional membrane materials, functional polymer materials and composite materials and other fields.
There is a huge market gap in the domestic market for new chemical materials. Imports account for most of the domestic market share. The overall self-sufficiency rate of new chemical materials in China is about 56%. The self-sufficiency rate of new chemical materials in new fields is only 52%. The self-sufficiency rates of engineering plastics and special rubber are only 35% and 30%.
New products of chemical industry will go through the process of gross margin fluctuation and import substitution rate. In the process of new chemical materials import substitution, the contradiction between the supply of most products exceeds the demand is not prominent, and the supply of some products exceeds the demand. High barriers bring high returns, with the gross margin of cutting-edge new chemical material products above 70%, far exceeding the industry average profit of about 15% for bulk chemicals.
With the development of science and technology, people have developed new materials on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are classified into four categories: metal materials, inorganic non-metallic materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials and advanced composite materials. According to material properties, it can be divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use the mechanical and physicochemical properties of materials to meet the requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, irradiation resistance, etc. Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photothermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials. Photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealthy materials and nuclear materials such as atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs. New materials play an important role in national defense construction. For example, the success of the development of ultra-pure silicon and gallium arsenide has led to the birth of large-scale and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI), which has increased the computing speed of computers from hundreds of thousands of times per second to more than ten billion times per second; the thrust of aeroengine materials can be increased by 24% for every 100 C increase in operating temperature; stealth materials can absorb electromagnetic waves or reduce weapons. The infrared radiation of the equipment makes it difficult for the enemy detection system to discover and so on.
One of the main directions of the development of science and technology in twenty-first Century is the development and application of new materials. The study of new materials is a deeper step towards the understanding and application of material properties.
New composite materials
The history of composite new materials can be traced back to ancient times. Both straw-reinforced clay and reinforced concrete, which have been used for hundreds of years, are composed of two materials. In the 1940s, due to the needs of the aviation industry, glass fiber reinforced plastics (commonly known as FRP) were developed, and the term composite material came into being. Since the 1950s, high strength and high modulus fibers such as carbon fiber, graphite fiber and boron fiber have been developed. Aramid fibers and silicon carbide fibers appeared in 70s. These high-strength and high-modulus fibers can be compounded with synthetic materials, carbon, graphite, ceramics, rubber and other non-metallic matrix or aluminum, magnesium, titanium and other metal matrix to form a unique composite material.
The specific strength of UHMWPE fiber ranks first among all kinds of fibers, especially its excellent chemical resistance and aging resistance. It also has excellent high-frequency sonar permeability and seawater corrosion resistance, many countries have used it to manufacture high-frequency sonar dome, greatly improving the ship's mine detection, mine sweeping capacity, in the domestic Scarlett new material development of composite materials on behalf of the higher level in China. In addition to military fields, UHMWPE fibers also have broad application prospects in automobile manufacturing, ship manufacturing, medical equipment, sports equipment and other fields. Once the fiber came out, it attracted great interest and attention from the developed countries.
When the temperature drops to a certain critical temperature, the resistance of some materials disappears completely. This phenomenon is called superconductivity. Materials with this phenomenon are called superconducting materials. Another characteristic of superconductors is that when the resistance disappears, the magnetic induction line will not pass through the superconductor. This phenomenon is called diamagnetism.
In general, the resistivity of metals (e. g. copper) decreases as the temperature decreases. When the temperature approaches 0 K, the resistance reaches a certain value. In 1919, Dutch scientist Ernest cooled mercury with liquid helium, and when the temperature dropped to 4.2K (i.e. - 269 C), the resistance of mercury completely disappeared.
Superconductivity and diamagnetic properties are two important characteristics of superconductors. The temperature that makes the resistance of the superconductor zero is called the critical temperature (TC). The problem of superconducting materials is to break through the "temperature barrier", that is, to search for high temperature superconducting materials.
Practical superconducting materials, such as NbTi and Nb3Sn, have been commercialized and applied in many fields such as NMRI, superconducting magnets and large accelerator magnets; SQUID, as a model of weak current application of superconductors, has played an important role in weak electromagnetic signal measurement, and its sensitivity is its sensitivity. It can not be achieved by any non superconducting device. However, the critical temperature of conventional cryogenic superconductors is too low to be used in expensive and complex liquid helium (4.2K) systems, which severely limits the development of cryogenic superconductors.
The appearance of high temperature oxide superconductors breaks through the temperature barrier and raises the application temperature of superconductors from liquid helium (4.2K) to liquid nitrogen (77K). Compared with liquid helium, liquid nitrogen is a very economical refrigerant with high thermal capacity, which brings great convenience to engineering application. In addition, high temperature superconductors have high magnetic properties and can be used to produce strong magnetic fields above 20T.
The most attractive applications of superconducting materials are power generation, transmission and energy storage. Using superconducting materials to make coil magnets of superconducting generators, the magnetic field intensity of the generator can be increased to 50-60,000 Gauss, and there is almost no energy loss. Compared with conventional generators, the capacity of superconducting generators can be increased by 5-10 times, and the efficiency of power generation can be increased by 50%; superconducting transmission lines and superconducting transformers can almost make the electricity. According to statistics, about 15% of the energy is lost on the transmission line, and the annual power loss in China is more than 100 billion degrees. If superconducting transmission is changed to superconducting transmission, the energy saved is equivalent to dozens of new large power plants. The working principle of superconducting maglev train is to use superconducting materials. Diamagnetism, the superconducting material placed above the permanent magnet (or magnetic field), because of the superconducting diamagnetism, magnetic lines of force can not pass through the superconductor, magnet (or magnetic field) and superconductor between the repulsive force, so that the superconductor suspended above. High-speed superconducting maglev trains, such as those at Shanghai Pudong International Airport, can be fabricated by using this magnetic levitation effect. For superconducting computers, high-speed computers require densely packed components and wiring on integrated circuit chips, but densely packed circuits generate a lot of heat when working, and if resistors are used. There is no heat dissipation problem when the superconducting material near zero is used to make the connecting wire or the superconducting device with superfine heating, which can greatly improve the speed of the computer.
Energy materials include solar cell materials, hydrogen storage materials, solid oxide battery materials and so on.
Solar cell materials are new energy materials, IBM developed multi-layer composite solar cells, conversion rate as high as 40%.
Hydrogen is a non-polluting and efficient ideal energy source. The key to the utilization of hydrogen is the storage and transportation of hydrogen. About 50% of the total funding for hydrogen research by the U.S. Department of Energy is spent on hydrogen storage technology. Hydrogen will corrode general materials, causing hydrogen embrittlement and leakage, and is easy to explode in transportation. Hydrogen storage materials can combine with hydrogen to form hydride. When needed, they can heat and dehydrogenate, and then continue to charge hydrogen after dehydrogenation. Hydrogen storage materials are mostly metallic compounds. Such as LaNi5H, Ti1.2Mn1.6H3 and so on.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are very active. The key technologies are battery materials, such as solid electrolyte films and cathode materials, as well as organic proton exchange membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Intelligent materials are the fourth generation of materials after natural materials, synthetic polymer materials and artificial design materials. They are one of the important directions of the development of modern high-tech new materials. Many technological breakthroughs have been made in the research and development of intelligent materials abroad, such as the British Aerospace Company's wire sensor, which is used to test the strain and temperature on the aircraft skin; the British developed a fast-response shape memory alloy with a life cycle of millions of cycles and high output power, which is used as a brake and reactor. It takes only 10 minutes, and shape memory alloys have been successfully used in satellite antennas, medical and other fields.
In addition, there are piezoelectric materials, magnetostrictive materials, conductive polymer materials, electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological fluids and other smart materials such as driving component materials and other functional materials.
Magnetic materials can be divided into two categories: soft magnetic materials and hard magnetic materials.
1. soft magnetic material
Material that is easy to magnetize and can be magnetized repeatedly, but when the magnetic field is removed, the magnetism disappears. These materials are characterized by high permeability (mu = B / H), which means that they are easily magnetized in a magnetic field and quickly reach high magnetization intensity; but when the magnetic field disappears, its remanence is very small. This material is widely used in high frequency technology in electronic technology. Such as magnetic core, magnetic head, memory magnetic core; in high-power technology can be used to make transformers, switch relays, etc. Commonly used soft magnets include iron silicon alloy, iron nickel alloy and amorphous metal.
Fe-(3%~4%) Si ferrosilicon alloy is the most commonly used soft magnetic material, and is often used as the core of low frequency transformers, motors and generators; Fe-Ni alloy has better performance than Fe-Si alloy, typical representative material is Permalloy, which is composed of 79% Ni-21% Fe, and Permalloy has high permeability (permeability Mu is ferrosilicon). Gold is an important electronic material with 10-20 times of loss, high permeability and low coercivity in a weak magnetic field. Amorphous metals (metallic glasses) are amorphous in structure, which are widely used in telecommunication industry, computer and control systems. They are composed of Fe, Co, Ni and semi-metallic elements B and Si. The key point of their production process is to cool the liquid metal at a very fast speed, so that the solid metal can obtain the amorphous structure with irregular arrangement of atoms. Amorphous metals have excellent magnetic properties. They have been used in transformers, magnetic sensors and recording heads with low energy consumption. In addition, some amorphous metals have excellent corrosion resistance, and some amorphous metals have high strength, good toughness characteristics.
2. permanent magnet material (hard magnetic material)
After magnetization, the permanent magnet material retains its magnetism after removing the external magnetic field. Its performance is characterized by high remanence and high coercivity. Using this characteristic, permanent magnets can be manufactured, and can be used as a magnetic source. Such as common compass, instrument, micro motor, motor, recorder, telephone and medical treatment. Permanent magnet materials include two types of ferrite and metal permanent magnet materials.
The amount of ferrite is large, the application is wide, the price is low, but the magnetic properties are general, used in the general requirements of permanent magnets.
In the metal permanent magnet material, the high carbon steel was first used, but the magnetic property was poor. Varieties of high-performance permanent magnets are Al-Ni-Co and Fe-Cr-Co; rare earth permanent magnets, such as the earlier rare earth cobalt (Re-Co) alloys (the main varieties are SmCo5 and Sm2Co17 made by powder metallurgy technology) are widely used in Nd-Fe-B rare earth permanent magnets, and Nd-Fe-B magnets have not only excellent properties, but also good properties. It contains no rare element cobalt, so it has become a representative of high-performance permanent magnet materials, has been used in high-performance speakers, electronic water meters, nuclear magnetic resonance meters, micro-motors, automotive start-up motors and so on.
Nano-scale is a scale, nano-science and technology is a scientific frontier of high-tech in one integrated system, its basic meaning is to understand and transform nature within the nano-scale, through direct manipulation and arrangement of atoms, molecular innovative materials. Nanotechnology mainly includes: nanosystem physics, nanochemistry, nanomaterials, nanobiology, nanoelectronics, nanoprocessing, nanomechanics seven aspects.
Nanomaterials are the most dynamic and rich branches of Science in the field of nanotechnology. In the 1980s, nano-materials refer to solid materials composed of nano-particles, in which the size of nano-particles does not exceed 100 nanometers. The preparation and synthesis technology of nanomaterials is the main research direction at present. Although some progress has been made in the synthesis of samples, a large number of bulk samples can not be prepared so far. Therefore, the preparation of nanomaterials plays an important role in its application.
1. properties of nanomaterials
The melting point and crystallization temperature of nanoparticles are much lower than those of conventional powders because of their high surface energy, high activity and low energy consumption. For example, the melting point of lead is 600K in general, and that of lead is lower than 288K in 20nm. Because of its strong absorbability, almost all kinds of nanoparticle powders are black; nanomaterials have strange magnetism, which is mainly manifested in the different magnetic properties of nanoparticles with different sizes. When the size of the particles is higher than a certain critical size, it shows high coercivity, but lower than a certain size, the coercivity is very small. For example, nickel particles with a particle size of 85 nm have high coercivity, while nickel particles with a particle size of less than 15 nm have near zero coercivity; nanoparticles have large specific surface area, and their surface chemical activity is much higher than that of normal powder. Therefore, the original chemical inert metal platinum particles (platinum black) become very active catalysts.
Diffusion and sintering properties of nanostructured materials are 1014-1020 times of lattice diffusion rate and 102-104 times of grain boundary diffusion rate, so nanostructured materials can be effectively doped at lower temperatures, and immiscible metals can form new alloy phases at lower temperatures. Another result of the increase in diffusion capacity is that the sintering temperature of nanostructured materials can be greatly reduced, so the sintering can achieve densification at lower temperatures.
Compared with ordinary materials, the mechanical properties of nano-materials have significant changes, and the strength and hardness of some materials are doubled. The nano-materials also show superplasticity, that is, a large amount of elongation is produced before fracture.
2. applications of nanomaterials
Nano-metal: such as nano-iron material, is made by pressing 6 nano-iron crystal, compared with ordinary iron strength increased by 12 times, hardness increased by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude, using nano-iron materials, can produce high strength and high toughness of special steel. For the high melting point refractory metal, as long as it is processed into nano-powder, it can be melted at a lower temperature, and made into high-temperature components for the development of a new generation of high-speed engine materials withstanding ultra-high temperature.
"Nanosphere" lubricant: full name of "atomic self-assembled nanosphere solid lubricant", is an aluminum-based alloy with icosahedral atom cluster structure and processed by a unique nano-preparation process of nano-scale lubricant. By using high-speed air flow comminution technology and precisely controlling the particle size of additives, a new surface can be formed on the friction surface, which can be used to repair the locomotive engine. Its composition design and preparation process are innovative, filling the blank technology of lubricating oil alloy additives. Adding nanospheres to locomotive engines can save fuel, repair worn surfaces, enhance locomotive power, reduce noise, reduce pollutant emissions, and protect the environment.
Nano-ceramics: Firstly, using nano-powder can reduce the sintering temperature of ceramics and simplify the production process. At the same time, nano-ceramics have good plasticity and even superplasticity, which solves the weakness of ordinary ceramics, and greatly expands the application of ceramics.
The diameter of carbon nanotubes is only 1.4 nm, which is only 1% of the width of the smallest circuit on a computer microprocessor chip. Its mass is 1/6 of the same volume steel, but its strength is 100 times that of steel. Carbon nanotubes will become the preferred material for future high-energy fibers, and will be widely used in the manufacture of Ultra-micro wires, switches and nano-electronic circuits.
Nano-catalysts can be used as catalysts, such as ultra-fine boron powder and ammonium perchromate powder, as effective catalysts for explosives; ultra-fine platinum powder and tungsten carbide powder are efficient catalysts for hydrogenation because of the large increase of the surface area of nano-materials and the great changes of the surface structure, thus enhancing the surface activity. Carbon dioxide can be decomposed into carbon and water at low temperatures using ultrafine Fe_3O_4 particles as catalysts, and the combustion efficiency can be doubled by adding a small amount of nickel powder to rocket fuel.
Quantum components make quantum components, first of all, we need to develop quantum boxes. Quantum boxes are tiny structures about 10 nanometers in diameter. When electrons are locked in such boxes, they can behave unusually because of quantum effects. Using this phenomenon, quantum components can be made. Quantum components work mainly by controlling the phase of the wave of electrons, so that they can achieve higher response. Speed and lower power consumption. In addition, quantum elements can also greatly reduce the size of the components and simplify the circuit, so the rise of quantum elements will lead to an electronic technology revolution. It is expected that in the 21st century, quantum components will be used to produce 16GB (gigabytes) of DRAM, a memory chip capable of storing 1 billion Chinese characters.
China has developed an emulsifier made of nanotechnology that can reduce fuel consumption of cars like Santana by about 10% when gasoline is added to a certain proportion; nanomaterials have excellent hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and about 2/3 of hydrogen energy can be released from these nanomaterials. You can not use the expensive cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage device.
Development of new composite materials in China
There is great potential for development of composite materials in China, but the following hot issues must be addressed.
Composite material innovation
Composite material innovation includes the technical development of composite materials, the technological development of composite materials, the product development of composite materials and the application of composite materials. By 2007, Asia's share of the world's total composite sales will increase from 18% to 25%, and Asia's per capita consumption will be only 0.29 kg, compared with 6.8 kg in the United States. Asia has great growth potential.
Development of polyacrylonitrile based fibers
China's carbon fiber industry is developing slowly. It is necessary and possible to develop polyacrylonitrile-based fibers from the perspective of CF development review, characteristics, domestic carbon fiber development process, China's PAN-based CF market situation, characteristics, and the "tenth five-year plan" scientific and technological research situation.
Structural adjustment of glass fiber
More than 70% of China's fiberglass is used for reinforcing substrates and has cost advantages in the international market. However, there is still a gap between China and advanced countries in terms of variety, specifications and quality. We must improve and develop yarns, woven fabrics, non-woven felt, knitted fabrics, sewn-woven fabrics and composite felt, promote close cooperation between fiberglass and fiberglass and fiberglass to promote glass production. New development of fiber reinforced materials.
Developing composite materials market for energy and transportation
First, clean and renewable energy composite materials, including wind power generation composite materials, flue gas desulfurization equipment composite materials, transmission and transformation equipment composite materials and natural gas, hydrogen high-pressure vessels; second, automotive and urban rail transit composite materials, including automotive body, frame and body panels, rail transit Car body, door, seat, cable groove, cable frame, grille, electrical box, etc. 3. Composite materials for civil aircraft, mainly carbon fiber composites. Thermoplastic composites account for about 10%. The main products are wing parts, vertical tail, hood and so on. China will need 661 new regional aircraft in the next 20 years, which will form a major industry of civil aviation passenger aircraft. Composite materials can be built into new industries to complement it. Fourthly, marine composite materials, mainly yachts and fishing boats, have a large market in Europe and the United States as high-grade entertainment and durable consumer goods. Although the development is slow, the unique advantages of composite materials still have room for development.
New material technology is a new material technology which can meet all kinds of needs through a series of research processes such as physical research, material design, material processing, experimental evaluation and so on. New materials are classified according to the properties of materials, including metal materials, inorganic non-metallic materials (such as ceramics, GaAs semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the performance of materials, there are structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use the mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and other performance requirements. Stealth materials can absorb electromagnetic waves or reduce the infrared radiation of weapons and equipment, making it difficult for enemy detection systems to discover. New material technology is known as the "mother of invention" and "industrial food".
With the progress of science and technology, new textile materials for industrial use are showing a trend of development, and their applications are expanding to a variety of fields. Some fibers with special functions, such as aramid, polyphenylene sulfide, carbon fiber and so on, are still promising in the market in the fields of environmental protection, energy saving and emission reduction, flame retardant and high temperature resistance, although they are relatively expensive.
As the foundation and forerunner of high and new technology, new materials have a wide range of applications. Together with information technology and biotechnology, new materials have become the most important and potential fields in the 21st century. Like traditional materials, new materials can be classified from various perspectives, such as structural composition, function and application fields. Different classifications overlap and nest each other. Generally, new materials are classified into the following main areas according to their application fields and current research hotspots:
Electronic information materials, new energy materials, nano-materials, advanced composite materials, advanced ceramic materials, ecological environment materials, new functional materials (including high-temperature superconducting materials, magnetic materials, diamond films, functional polymer materials, etc.), biomedical materials, high-performance structural materials, intelligent materials, new buildings And new chemical materials.
The marriage between architecture and textile is only in recent years. Fiber into concrete, to enhance the building strength, anti-aging effect, has achieved results in the construction of Olympic venues, such as many examples. However, as a fire-proof and flame-retardant material used in the construction industry, textiles have not attracted enough attention. In February 9, 2009, the fire of CCTV building was still fresh. This fire has brought serious harm to the safety of life and property of the state and the people. The media revealed that the fire was caused by fireworks from the extruded board, a flammable material for the exterior wall of the building. Although extruded panels are environmentally friendly, they are flammable and extremely fast. The use of such flammable materials, once encountered Mars, the loss is inevitable. In the field of building engineering, in order to reduce the losses caused by this, countries all over the world attach great importance to the research of flame retardant materials. Some high performance and high flame retardant polymers, including polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyether imide (PEI), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyphenylene sulfone (PPSU), polyether sulfone (PES), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and modified polyphenylene ether (PPO) surfaced.
At present, China produces and uses the most flame retardant finishing fabrics, including cotton, pure polyester, wool, polyester and cotton blended durable flame retardant fabrics and cotton, viscose, pure polyester non-durable washing flame retardant fabrics, insights pointed out that with the continuous improvement of people's living and environmental conditions, people on flame retardant spinning Fabric performance requirements are getting higher and higher, manpower and funds should be invested to increase the development of dimensional stability, chemical resistance and wear resistance of flame retardant fiber products, expand the scope of application. China has invested a lot of manpower and material resources in the research and development of flame retardant materials, among which flame retardant and high temperature resistant materials in industrial textiles have attracted special attention and become the development direction and trend of flame retardant fibers. In 2009, the key technology and industrialization of Aramid 1313 and heat-resistant insulation paper, a major scientific research achievement, passed the expert appraisal organized by China Textile Industry Association. This achievement also won the first prize of China Textile Industry Association in science and technology.
Aramid fiber production in the world is 31,000 tons, of which DuPont is the largest, with 25,000 tons, followed by Emperor Japan, with an annual output of about 2,500 tons. The main enterprises producing Aramid 1313 in China are Yantai Spandex, Shengyou Group and Guangdong Caiyan Co., Ltd. The annual output is between 5000 tons and 6000 tons, which is far from meeting the needs of the market. Dr. Zhang Yan, senior engineer of China Industrial Textile Industry Association, said that the government's policy of building materials going to the countryside could help industrial textiles. Some high performance fibers are used in building materials, which can enhance, fire and flame retardancy. If these high-performance fibers can be included in the scope of building materials to the countryside, we can expand the use of industrial textiles and expand the market of industrial textiles.
Environmental protection and low carbon is the mainstream of the world today. Reducing carbon emissions is a long-term goal of the country. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) fiber is the preferred material for industrial dust removal because of its wear resistance, high melting point (200 degree non-melting) and stability. It is widely used in China's coal, power, cement industry as a "cutting edge" of emission reduction. According to some data, China's coal-fired power, coal-fired boiler bag dust removal equipment accounted for less than 10% of the total dust removal equipment. With the increase of national environmental protection, the understanding of the advantages of bag filter technology has been gradually improved. The annual demand of PPS fiber will increase at a rate of more than 30% annually. The market prospect is very broad. In addition, PPS fiber is widely used in urban garbage incineration, automobile exhaust dust removal, insulation materials, chemical filter materials and other aspects, and the demand is increasing year by year.
- Reasons for Quenching Deformation of Vacuum Furnace
- Supply vacuum hot pressing furnace
- Protection of aluminum foil vacuum annealing furnace
- Rotary vane vacuum pump in microelectronics industry
- Vacuum Pumps Maintenance Operational Guidelines
- Discussion on the performance test method of roots vacuum pump
- Rotary vane vacuum pump in environmental protection
- Rotary vane vacuum pump parameters
- Oil free vacuum pump
- Vacuum Furnace Melting of Nonferrous Metal Alloys
- Vacuum pump unit deodorizes grease
- Leak Detection of Vacuum Furnace
- Vacuum coating equipment
- The use of Liquid ring vacuum pump
- Introduction of the vacuum coating machine equipment